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Les différences physiologiques entre les bas et haut répondeurs à l’hypertrophie musculaire suite à un entrainement physique en résistance : les perspectives actuelles et les directions futures des recherches



Les différences physiologiques entre les bas et haut répondeurs à l’hypertrophie musculaire suite à un entrainement physique en résistance : les perspectives actuelles et les directions futures des recherches
Introduction
 
Les facteurs physiologiques affectant la réactivité des traits à l’entrainement physique (comme le changement des capacités aérobie, la force ou la croissance musculaire) ont gagné récemment l’intérêt des chercheurs. D’un point de vue historique, cet intérêt a largement été inspiré par la célèbre étude HERITAGE, où les changements de la V02max auraient varié de pratiquement aucun gain à une augmentation de 100%, après un entrainement en endurance de 20 semaines, chez des sujets sédentaires.
 
Aussi, Van Etten et al (1994), examine la réponse musculaire hypertrophique chez des individus classés comme « svelte » (slender : bas répondeur) ou « robuste » (solid : haut répondeur), après un entrainement physique en résistance de 12 semaines. Les sujets ont été classés selon leur indice de masse sans gras (FFMI), déterminé par mesure des plis de peau, pour lequel les sujets sveltes ont eu des valeurs inférieures comparés aux sujets robustes. Les auteurs rapportent que les sujets robustes présentaient une augmentation significative de la masse sans gras après un entrainement physique, alors que les sujets sveltes n’expérimentaient en pratique aucun gain.
 
Plus d’une décennie après, Bamman et al. (2007) rapportent qu’il existe différents biomarqueurs dans les muscles squelettiques entre les groupes de réponse hypertrophique du muscle squelettique. Les « répondeurs extrêmes » (ici, haut répondeur), présentent une importante augmentation de la section transversale de leur fibre musculaire, comparé au « non répondeur » (ici, bas répondeur), après un entrainement physique. Les hauts répondeurs (HR) ont également exprimé des taux plus élevés de variantes d'ARNm du facteur de croissance 1 ressemblant à l’insuline (IGF-1) du muscle squelettique, ainsi qu'un ARNm indicatif de la différenciation des cellules satellites par rapport aux sujets bas répondeurs (BR) après l’entrainement en résistance.
 
Le but de cette revue est de résumer les résultats de ces recherches. Etant donné que seules quelques études ont examiné les biomarqueurs musculaires exprimés différentiellement entre les patients ayant une réponse faible et élevée, nous proposons également des facteurs moins examinés qui pourraient contribuer aux réactions hypertrophiques différentielles qui se produisent pendant l'entraînement en résistance et qui devraient être mieux étudiés à l’avenir.
 
Un bref rappel général des mécanismes facilitant l’hypertrophie
 
L’hypertrophie musculaire en réponse à des exercices en résistance est influencé par l’interaction de nombreux facteurs extrinsèques et intrinsèques. Parmi les facteurs intrinsèques, nous retiendrons ici 3 facteurs majeurs :
 
  • La régulation à la hausse de la synthèse protéique myofibrillaire et globale des protéines musculaires (MyoPS et MPS) durant la période post exercice. Celle-ci est largement modulée via la signalisation de mTORC1 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1).
  • La réduction de la protéolyse dans la période post exercice
  • Une augmentation de l’addition myonucléaire par médiation des cellules satellites.
 Définition des bas et hauts répondeurs hypertrophiques à l’entrainement en résistance
 
Le tableau 1 regroupe différentes études cherchant à définir les caractéristiques physiologiques de BR et des HR.

Les différences physiologiques entre les bas et haut répondeurs à l’hypertrophie musculaire suite à un entrainement physique en résistance : les perspectives actuelles et les directions futures des recherches
Il est cependant nécessaire que les études utilisent des mesures différentes, avec des modalités d’entrainement différentes, sur des populations différentes. Néanmoins, les résultats suivants permettent d’identifier les BR et les HR :
 
  Bas répondeur Haut répondeur
Aire de section transversale des fibres musculaires (fCSA) du quadriceps 0% 20%
Volume du quadriceps 0% 83%
Épaisseur du vaste latérale 4% 30%
Augmentation de la masse sèche corps entier 0,5 – 1,2 kg 2,2 – 4,5 kg
 
Différences physiologiques entre bas et hauts répondeurs hypertrophiques
 
  • La biogénèse des ribosomes induite par l’entrainement est plus grande chez les HR par rapport au BR :
 
Étant donné que les ribosomes catalysent la MyoPS et la MPS, et que les augmentations répétées de ces taux de synthèse après l'exercice facilitent vraisemblablement la croissance musculaire, une augmentation du contenu en ribosomes des fibres musculaires pendant les périodes d'entraînement en résistance est apparemment avantageuse pour l'hypertrophie des muscles squelettiques. Bamman’s (2016) décrit que le contenu en ribosome augmentait d’environ 30% chez des sujets mâles plus âgés, qui était haut répondeur (+83% type II fCSA) alors que qu’aucun changement du contenu en ribosome n’a été observé chez les sujets bas répondeurs.
 
  • L’addition myonucléaire par médiation des cellules satellites pourrait dicter la réponse hypertrophique à l’entrainement en résistance : Petralla et al supportent le paradigme selon lequel la quantité de cellule satellite pré et post entrainement était plus grande chez les sujet HR que les sujets BR, après 16 semaines d’entrainement en résistance.
 
  • Les microARNs (mARN) pourrait influencer la réponse hypertrophique par influence de l’IGF1 : Bamman et al (2007) ainsi que Davidsen et al (2011), rapportent que les niveaux de mARN de l’IGF1 sont significativement plus élevés chez les sujets hauts répondeurs.
 
  • L’induction des récepteurs androgéniques des muscles squelettiques pourrait tracer la réponse hypertrophique. En effet, plusieurs études suggèrent qu’une augmentation de la teneur en protéine des récepteurs à androgènes pourrait promouvoir une augmentation de l’hypertrophie musculaire après un entrainement en résistance. Ahtiainen et al (2011) rapportent une corrélation entre l’augmentation de ce facteur et l’augmentation de la fCSA et de la masse sèche.
 
  • La composition en type de fibre avant entrainement ne définit probablement pas les groupes de réponses à l’entrainement en résistance. En effet, un consensus pourtant bien établit admet que les individus ayant une haute proportion de fibres musculaires de type II sont prédisposés à être des athlètes de force/puissance, alors que les individus ayant une haute proportion de fibres musculaires de type I sont prédisposés à être des athlètes d’endurance. Pourtant, une revue récente cite plusieurs lignes de preuves qui suggèrent que le potentiel de croissance de 2 types de fibres apparait similaire lors d’un entrainement en résistance.
 
Les futures directions de recherche examinant quels facteurs pourraient contribuer à des réponses différentielles à l’hypertrophie
 
De nombreux facteurs physiologiques rentrent donc en compte dans la différenciation entre bas et haut répondeur hypertrophique, pouvant prédisposer tel ou tel individu à gagner en volume ou en force musculaire, et donc à performer. Les auteurs suggèrent une liste non exhaustive des différentes orientations intéressantes pour de futures recherches sur le sujet, parmi lesquelles :
 
  • Le tissu conjonctif limite t-il la croissance musculaire en réponse à un entrainement en hypertrophie ?
  • La réponse inflammatoire en réponse à un entrainement en résistance limite t’elle la croissance musculaire ?
  • Existe-t-il une relation entre les caractéristiques mitochondriales et le type de répondeurs hypertrophiques ?
  • Les groupes de réponse hypertrophique possèdent ils des différences de propriétés vasculaires ?
 
 
Mots clé : hypertrophie, biogénèse des ribosomes, cellules satellites, microARN, IGF-1, récepteur androgène.
 
Article original : Michael D. Roberts, Cody T. Haun, Christopher B. Mobley, Petey W. Mumford, Matthew A. Romero, Paul A. Roberson, Christopher G. Vann and John J. McCarthy. Physiological Differences Between Low Versus High Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophic Responders to Resistance Exercise Training: Current Perspectives and Future Research Directions. Front. Physiol. 9:834. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2018.00834
 
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